[Emergency] Atlas of Corneal Abrasion

These are pictures of Corneal Abrasion. This is a part in OPHTHALMIC TRAUMA of the Atlas of Emergency Medicine book

Clinical Summary

Corneal abrasions present with acute onset of eye discomfort, tearing, and often a foreign-body sensation. A “ciliary flush” (conjunctival injection hugging the limbus) may be seen. Large abrasions or those in the central visual axis may affect visual acuity. Photophobia and headache from ciliary muscle spasm may be present. Associated findings or complications include traumatic iritis, hypopyon, or a corneal ulcer. Fluorescein examination, preferably with a slit lamp, reveals the defect.

Management and Disposition

Instillation of topical anesthetic drops facilitates examination while relieving pain and blepharospasm. Consider using a short-acting cycloplegic (eg, cyclopentolate 1%, homatropine 5%) to reduce pain from ciliary spasm in patients who complain of headache or photophobia. Consider oral opioid analgesics for pain control. Nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drug (NSAID) eye drops (eg, diclofenac or ketorolac) are equally effective and avoid risks of sedation. Neither treatment with topical antibiotics, nor patching, nor tetanus prophylaxis for uncomplicated corneal abrasions has scientific validation. Follow-up is advised for any patient with complications, or who is still symptomatic after 24 hours.

Pearls

1. Mucus may simulate fluorescein uptake, but its position changes with blinking.
2. Multiple linear corneal abrasions, the “ice-rink sign,” may result from an embedded foreign body (FB) adhered to the upper lid. Always evert the lid to evaluate this.
3. Whenever the mechanism includes grinding or striking metal, or high-velocity injuries from mowers or string trimmers, maintain a high index of suspicion for penetrating injury. Fluorescein streaming away from an “abrasion” (Seidel test) may be an indication of a corneal perforation.
4. Routine prophylactic treatment with topical antibiotics remains controversial. When used, inexpensive, broadspectrum antibiotic drops (sulfacetamide sodium or trimethoprim/polymyxin B) allow clearer vision than lubricating ointments, which may feel better, but blur vision. Avoid topical neomycin antibiotics because of a high risk of irritant allergy symptoms in many people.
5. An “abrasion” in a contact lens wearer should alert one to suspect a corneal ulcer. Consult ophthalmology while the patient is in the emergency department. 

Corneal Abrasion
FIGURE 4.1 Corneal Abrasion. A small abrasion is seen at the
3-o’clock position, just across the larger white reflection from the
flash. Note the brisk localized conjunctival inflammatory reaction
and ciliary flush.
 

Corneal Abrasion
FIGURE 4.2 Corneal Abrasion. Multiple punctate and one large
traumatic abrasion are seen with fluorescein uptake.
  

Corneal Abrasion
FIGURE 4.3 Corneal Abrasion. Abrasions obscuring the visual
axis benefit from close follow-up with an ophthalmologist to ensure
adequate healing.
  

FIGURE 4.4 Corneal Abrasion. This injury was due to a bungee
cord impacting the eye. An irregular corneal light reflex indicates
a disruption in the corneal epithelium (abrasion or perforation).
A small hyphema is also seen. 

FIGURE 4.5 Foreign Body under the Upper Lid. Lid eversion
is an essential part of the eye examination to detect foreign bodies.
  

Ice-Rink Sign
FIGURE 4.6 Ice-Rink Sign.” Multiple linear abrasions caused 
by upper lid foreign body. 
REFERENCES
The Atlas of Emergency Medicine, Fourth Edition, 2016.

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CLINICAL ATLAS,118,DERMATOLOGY ATLAS,10,EMERGENCY ATLAS,44,HAEMATOLOGY ATLAS,23,HUMAN ANATOMY,1,MICROBIOLOGY ATLAS,66,PARASITOLOGY ATLAS,4,PATHOLOGY ATLAS,22,PEDIATRIC ATLAS,42,STDs,19,SUBCLINICAL ATLAS,116,
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Free Medical Atlas: [Emergency] Atlas of Corneal Abrasion
[Emergency] Atlas of Corneal Abrasion
These are pictures of Corneal Abrasion. This is a part in OPHTHALMIC TRAUMA of the Atlas of Emergency Medicine book
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